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Policy Advocacy - Overview

The Solid Waste Management Roundtable’s advocacy efforts have been in five major domains guided by the principles of waste hierarchy.

policy advocacy

#1: Promote waste segregation at source & increase recycling targets

1999 Recommendations For The Modernization Of Solid Waste Management In Class I Cities In India : By Report Of The Committee Constituted By The Hon’ble Supreme Court Of India (March, 1999)

Chapter 3: Recommendations for the Modernization of Solid Waste Management Practices in Class 1 Cities in India : Under Mandatory Recommendation - “Wastes shall be stored at the source generation in two bins/bags, one for food waste/ bio-degradable waste and another for recyclable waste such as papers, plastic, metal, glass rags etc.”

Section 3.1 speaks about the importance of Storage of Waste at source into different categories for different generators and for streams.

Section 3.2 stresses the importance of Segregation of Recyclable waste and recommends that “The local bodies shall direct households, shops and establishments not to mix recyclable waste with domestic food/bio-degradable waste and instead keep recyclable/ non- biodegradable waste in a separate bin or bag at the source of waste generation.
www.karmayog.org/library/libartdis.asp?r=152&libid=483
2000 Municipal Solid Wastes ( Management & Handling) Rules, 2000
Schedule–II rules 6(1) and (3), 7(1) Management of Municipal Solid Waste, states

Segregation of municipal solid wastes: In order to encourage the citizens, municipal authority shall organise awareness programmes for segregation of wastes and shall promote recycling or reuse of segregated materials.

The municipal authority shall undertake phased programme to ensure community participation in waste segregation. For this purpose, regular meetings at quarterly intervals shall be arranged by the municipal authorities with representatives of local resident welfare associations and non-governmental organizations.
www.moef.nic.in/legis/hsm/mswmhr.html
2008 National Action Plan for Climate Change 2008
http://pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf
2008 The CAG Audit on Municipal Solid Waste in India (December 2008)
All India Audit Report on Management of Waste in India”
http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Other_Reports/Study_Reports/Study_Report_Environment_Audit/Chapter_5.pdf
2009 The Position Paper in Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Finance, 2009 clearly states that waste management must be solution based and not technology based
The Position Paper in Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Finance 2009  stresses the need for source segregation as segregation of waste is a catalyst to success of alternative means of waste disposal

The ULBs should formulate waste management Strategy through independent consultants. Waste management should be solution based and not technology based. The strategy must be formulated after making a thorough introspection on the following lines:

-What are the municipality's targets on waste re-use and recycle?
-How much waste is being diverted from landfill?
-Is the municipality able to recycle majority of the waste?
The strategy so formulated must demonstrate how it is intended to achieve the threshold objectives as defined by the ULB.
2010 Report of the Committee to frame National Sustainable Habitat Standards for the Municipal Solid Waste Management
Recommends that Duty of occupiers of premises to store solid waste at source of generation. ( 1) It shall be incumbent on the occupiers of all premises to keep two receptacles, one for the storage of food/organic/bio

-degradable waste and another for non bio-degradable/ recyclables and other types of solid wastes generated at the said premises.

(4) It shall be incumbent on households / shops / establishments and all other waste generators to hand over their segregated bio –degradable, recyclable waste and Non-bio-degradable wastes to waste collectors of the municipal authorities, or any agency fixed by the municipal authorities as may be notified by the Municipal Authorities from time to time.
http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/nmsh/mswm.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Wastes in India, MOEF 2010
Recommends
A specific policy for the management of wastes in India, incorporating the internationally accepted hierarchy for management of wastes should be framed.

Segregation of wastes must be at the level of residential/institutional/ Govt Departments so as to facilitate door -to -door collection of segregated waste
http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Roadmap-Mgmt-Waste.pdf

#2: Promote Decentralize community based waste management systems wherever possible

1999 Recommendations For The Modernization Of Solid Waste ManagementIn Class I Cities In India : By Report Of The Committee Constituted By The Hon’ble Supreme Court Of India (March, 1999)
2008 National Action Plan for Climate Change 2008
http://pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf
2008 The CAG Audit on Municipal Solid Waste in India (December 2008)
All India Audit Report on Management of Waste in India”
http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Other_Reports/Study_Reports/Study_Report_Environment_Audit/Chapter_5.pdf
2009 The Position Paper in Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Finance, 2009 clearly states that waste management must be solution based and not technology based
2010 Report of the Committee to frame National Sustainable Habitat Standards for the Municipal Solid Waste Management
The Municipal Authorities may identify and allocate suitable pieces of land in their Jurisdiction to facilitate sorting of various components of recyclable material collected by waste collectors and prevent such activities being carried out on the footpaths, road side, etc.
http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/nmsh/mswm.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Wastes in India, MOEF 2010
Recommends
The responsibility of Manufacturers & Processors may include the following: Setting up of safe and sustainable common plastic waste management units by plastics processors/re-processors in community areas or in designated common facility locations
http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Roadmap-Mgmt-Waste.pdf
2010 The Ministry of Urban Development circular dated March 2010
Circular Directs the Chief Secretaries to provide Non-Biodegradable Waste Collection Centers and Decentralized waste management practices need to be promoted in the cities and towns so as to facilitate the recycling of waste material by the waste pickers and onsite composting
2011 Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
Section 6: States that it is the responsibility of the municipality to set up collection centers for plastic waste involving manufacturers
http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/DOC070211-005.pdf

#3: Promote landfill diversion goals so as to reduce landfilling to a minimum

1999 Recommendations For The Modernization Of Solid Waste ManagementIn Class I Cities In India : By Report Of The Committee Constituted By The Hon’ble Supreme Court Of India (March, 1999)
Chapter 3.15.2 States “Landfilling should be used only as the last step in the waste- processing chain, not for untreated mixed waste. Only rejects should be landfilled, in a scientific manner, once compost plants are set up.
1999 Municipal Solid Wastes ( Management & Handling) Rules, 2000
Schedule –II rules 6(1) and (3), 7(1) Management of Municipal Solid Waste, states Disposal of municipal solid wastes states:

Land filling shall be restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste that is not suitable either for recycling or for biological processing. Land filling shall also be carried out for residues of waste processing facilities as well as pre-processing rejects from waste processing facilities. Land filling of mixed waste shall be avoided unless the same is found unsuitable for waste processing. Under unavoidable circumstances or till installation of alternate facilities, land-filling shall be done following proper norms. Landfill sites shall meet the specifications as given in Schedule.
2008 National Action Plan for Climate Change 2008
http://pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf
2008 The CAG Audit on Municipal Solid Waste in India (December 2008)
All India Audit Report on Management of Waste in India”
http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Other_Reports/Study_Reports/Study_Report_Environment_Audit/Chapter_5.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to frame National Sustainable Habitat Standards for the Municipal Solid Waste Management
Municipal Authorities to construct engineered landfills and setup treatment facilities to minimize the waste going to landfills

Municipal Authorities shall undertake construction of engineered landfills on priority as per the provisions of MSW Rules, 2000 and ensure that no MSW is disposed of at any place other than engineered landfill. This shall be done in a time bound manner in conformity with Municipal Solid waste(Management &Handling) Rules 2000.

Municipal Authorities Shall simultaneously promote the processing of Municipal Solid waste and shall reduce the waste going to landfill by adopting the concept of Reduce, Reuse, recover & Recycle (RRRR).

The Municipal Authorities shall reduce the waste going to landfills each year in phased manner (at-least 15% each year) to achieve not more than 20% waste to be landfilled after a 5 year period
http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/nmsh/mswm.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Wastes in India, MOEF 2010
Land filling should be restricted to non-biodegradable/inorganic waste.
http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Roadmap-Mgmt-Waste.pdf

#4: Integration of informal waste workers into the city’s existing solid waste management programme

There are several rules and policies, government orders, steering committee reports in India that clearly state the need to integrate waste-pickers in the municipality’s solid waste management system.

1995 The Planning Commission constituted a High Power Committee on Solid Waste management under the Chairmanship of Prof. J.S. Bajaj, Member, Planning Commission, Government of India, 1995
Recognized waste-picker contribution, stressed the need to organize them into cooperatives and emphasized the need for them to be integrated into municipal solid waste management systems and also suggested the need to construct ward level recovery centers.
1999 Recommendations For The Modernization Of Solid Waste ManagementIn Class I Cities In India : By Report Of The Committee Constituted By The Hon’ble Supreme Court Of India (March, 1999)
Chapter 3, Point no 3.4.7 “Recommends that NGOs may be encouraged to organize waste-pickers for door to door collection.
2006 National Environment Policy 2006
Give legal recognition to, and strengthen the informal sector systems of collection and recycling of various materials. In particular enhance their access to institutional finance and relevant technologies. (Section 5.2.8, point (e), Pg. 39)
Retrieved from http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/introduction-nep2006e.pdf
2006 Maharashtra Non-Biodegradable Garbage (Control) Act, 2006
Recommends integration of waste pickers into formal waste collection.
2008 National Action Plan for Climate Change 2008
While the informal sector is the backbone of India’s highly successful recycling system, unfortunately a number of municipal regulations impede the operation of the recyclers, owing to which they remain at a tiny scale without access to finance or improved recycling technologies”( 3.3National Mission on Sustainable Habitat).
http://pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf
2008 The CAG Audit on Municipal Solid Waste in India (December 2008)
“MOEF/states should consider providing legal recognition to rag pickers so that recycling work becomes more organized and also ensure better working conditions for them.” (Chapter 3, Section 3.5")
"All India Audit Report on Management of Waste in India”
http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Other_Reports/Study_Reports/Study_Report_Environment_Audit/Chapter_5.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to frame National Sustainable Habitat Standards for the Municipal Solid Waste Management
The Municipal authorities may identify & allocate suitable pieces of land in their jurisdiction to facilitate sorting of various components of recyclable material collected by waste collectors.
2010 Report of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Wastes in India, MOEF 2010
Collection of segregated waste must be done by local agencies through NGOs/Association of rag pickers and self Help Groups ( SHG) groups for making arrangements for collection of waste from: Households, Slums & Squatter settlements, Commercial areas, Industrial areas, Horticulture nurseries are parks, sites generating construction and demolition waste, office complexes, slaughterhouses and vegetable markets, Healthcare establishments especially their non-infected waste. The inorganic/non-biodegradable waste should be channelized through informal sector workers like door-to-door collection workers, SHGs, waste worker associations…

Segregation of wastes must be at the level of residential/institutional/ Govt Departments so as to facilitate door -to -door collection of segregated waste. The inorganic/non-biodegradable waste should be channelized through the informal sector workers like door-to-door collection workers, SHGs, waste worker associations and others to registered recyclers for recycling and only the remaining waste, which cannot be recycled should be taken to sanitary landfills by the registered recyclers or the municipality.
http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Roadmap-Mgmt-Waste.pdf
2010 The Ministry of Urban Development circular dated March 2010
Circular Directs the Chief Secretaries to include waste pickers into solid waste management and further articulates the principles on which the integration of waste pickers should occur. In addition, it also states that in order to integrate the informal waste recycling sector into the mainstream and give incentives, the CS of all states.UTs to direct all the ULBs to protect the rights of waste pickers to access, collect and sell recyclable scraps.
2011 Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
Section 6: States that it is the responsibility of the municipality to set up collection centers for plastic waste involving manufacturers
http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/DOC070211-005.pdf
2011 Electronic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
The electronic waste (related to old computers, mobile phones, fridges, televisions and many other electric and electronic wastes) rules include the informal sector by emphasizing that associations can also act as collection centres, with the understanding that associations are a form of informal sector organization.

The other reports include Recommendations of Second National Labour Commission about Rag Pickers, The Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act 2008

#5: Encourage EPR and Product Stewardship

1999 Recommendations For The Modernization Of Solid Waste ManagementIn Class I Cities In India : By Report Of The Committee Constituted By The Hon’ble Supreme Court Of India (March, 1999)
2008 National Action Plan for Climate Change 2008
http://pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf
2008 The CAG Audit on Municipal Solid Waste in India (December 2008)
All India Audit Report on Management of Waste in India
http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Other_Reports/Study_Reports/Study_Report_Environment_Audit/Chapter_5.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to frame National Sustainable Habitat Standards for the Municipal Solid Waste Management
The Municipal Authorities may identify and allocate suitable pieces of land in their Jurisdiction to facilitate sorting of various components of recyclable material collected by waste collectors and prevent such activities being carried out on the footpaths, road side, etc.
http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/nmsh/mswm.pdf
2010 Report of the Committee to Evolve Road Map on Management of Wastes in India, MOEF 2010
The responsibility of Manufacturers & Processors may include the following:
Paying for both recyclable & non-recyclable plastics and their ultimate waste management options.
Undertaking mandatory responsibility of producers for R&D activities on plastic waste mitigation.
Undertaking R&D for developing truly safe and biodegradable polymers like food grade linings in cardboard cartons etc. made from tapioca starch or other such food based starch so that along with biodegradability, the polymer technology will also evolve into a complete safe packaging option for the consumers.
http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Roadmap-Mgmt-Waste.pdf
2011 Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
For setting up plastic waste collection centers, the muncipal authority may ask the manufacturers, either collectively or individually in line with the principle of Extended Producer's Responsibility (EPR) to provide the required finance to establish such collection centre.
© 2014 Solid Waste Management Round Table (SWMRT) a Public Interest Initiative empowered by ‘The Anonymous Indian Charitable Trust’